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Yukaghir y and mtDNA hg profiles
Topic Started: Sep 18 2006, 12:54:45 AM (1,303 Views)
black man
The Right Hand
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updated contents:

unfortunately, the authors of the according paper didn't clarify which of their y-chromosomal samples are from which exact locations. But so far, all y-chromosomal samples known seem to be from locations in the Kolyma valley.

Fedorova et al. 2013 excluding I and R (n=8):
C-M217+, M48-: 3; on p. 9 they write: "the Yukaghirs’ C3* lineages are closest to the Koryak gene pool (see Additional file 8 and Additional file 9)"; possibly Koryak or Koryak-related according to Karmin et al. 2015
C-M217+, M48+: 1 (Tungusic?)
N-M46+: 3 with the ht being less common in Sakha
O-M175+: 1 (Tungusic?)
=> what remains is primarily N-M46+

Pakendorf et al. 2006 excluding "F*" (n=12):
C-M217+, M48-: 1 (Koryak or Koryak-related?)
C-M217+, M48+, M86-: 1
C-M217+, M48+, M86+: 2 (Tungusic?)
N-M46+: 4; according to their fig. 7 and the accompanying text, only one Yukaghir ht clusters with the Sakha hts, whereas the three others seem to be derived from a South Siberian ht
Q-P36+: 4 with the ht apparently clustering with Koryak hts and possibly to be associated with ancient Saqqaq(!) culture according to Malyarchuk et al. 2011

=> in other words: primarily N-M46+ as well with this hg obviously being from a inland region to the south of both traditional Yukaghir and traditional Sakha settlements.

As for mtDNA hg profiles, they can be misleading when you ignore their probable ethnohistorical contexts. However, there can be papers in which authors mention the exact data of relatively many relevant samples. E.g., take a look at figure 1, table S1 and figure S1 of Duggan et al. 2013. When you consider that proto-Yukaghirs had to go by foot while fleeing from Tungusic-speaking reindeer riders, they probably left behind an increasing number of women and the respective mtDNA lineages. In this sense, it might not surprise if there are only derived versions of Dl2 and D4m2 among the Yukaghirs. The ancestral versions might have stayed at more southern locations for practical reasons:
- families which were rich might NOT have feared linguistic assimilation because they could defend themselves
- migrating to the north was possibly only what relatively few and more or less poor descent groups did: those who did not have the means to defend themselves

Sources:
Duggan et al. 2013: "Investigating the Prehistory of Tungusic Peoples of Siberia and the Amur-Ussuri Region"; doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0083570
Fedorova et al. 2013: "Autosomal and uniparental portraits of the native populations of Sakha (Yakutia)"; doi: 10.1186/1471-2148-13-127
Malyarchuk et al. 2011: "Ancient links between Siberians and Native Americans revealed by subtyping the Y chromosome haplogroup Q1a"; doi: 10.1038/jhg.2011.64
Pakendorf et al. 2006: "Investigating the eVects of prehistoric migrations in Siberia: genetic variation and the origins of Yakuts"; doi: 10.1007/s00439-006-0213-2




old post:

according to some archaeologists, peoples related to the proto-Yukaghirs must have lived in Central Siberia before the Tungus and the Yakuts. Meanwhile, Yukaghiric is rare and only spoken in NE Siberia. (Proto-)Yukaghiric-speakers of the past might have had linguistic contacts with Samoyedic-speakers. Some even put Yukaghiric and Samoyedic into the same language family.

General information (history, population census etc):
http://www.yukoncollege.yk.ca/~agraham/nos...kagir_trans.htm
http://www.stanford.edu/~emaslova/Yukaghir.htm

Genetic studies:
Ancestral Asian Source(s) of New World Y-Chromosome Founder Haplotypes
Karafet et al. 1999
www.journals.uchicago.edu/AJHG/journal/issues/v64n3/980572/980572.web.pdf
Virologic and genetic studies relate Amerind origins to the indigenous people of the Mongolia/Manchuria/southeastern Siberia region
Neel et al. 1994
http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=45097
Mitochondrial DNA Analysis of Mongolian Populations and Implications for the Origin of New World Founders
Kolman et al. 1996
http://www.genetics.org/cgi/reprint/142/4/1321.pdf

mtDNA hgs according to Kolman et al. 1996 (n=27): 59% hg C; 33% hg D; 7,4% "others".
y hgs according to Karafet et al. 1999 (n=12): once "B"; six times "C"; thrice "N3"; twice "P(xR1a,Q3)".




old reply to Maju's reply below (originally in the first post at http://www.anthropedia.science/topic/10041880/1/ ):

Maju,Sep 18 2006
09:13 AM
Reading that it looks like it was another American genocide but in Eurasia. Those people were so much isolated that didn't even know what a horse was. Also their genetics is shockingly "Native American", whith high % of C and D mtDNA.

Well, reindeer is a bit horse-shaped. Also, horse might have became extinct there due to hunting. But that's palaeozoology and I don't know much about it.

Quote:
 
One of the links point to a possible Uralo-Yukaghir linguistic link. That would be curious because, if confirmed, it would talk of an ecologically specific linguistic grouping through most of Northern Eurasia, from Lappland to Eastern Siberia.

Interesting is also the connection of the Samoyedic peoples to the High Asian steppes. They were in fact found in the Altais. Moreover, the "dappled horde" (Selkups) seem to be Samoyedicised Ketic people. Assimilation is hardly possible without violent pressure. In any case, they did have metal weapons and armour from the south to the steppes.

Known is from archaeology that people culturally close to Samoyedics replaced people culturally similar to present-day Kamtchatkans in Northwest Siberia. If they had come from central Siberia (where the Yukaghirs supposedly were according to archaeologists' assumptions based on material cultural remains), they might have went through central West Siberia into the Urals and then maybe into the Altais from the West.

A late direct entry into the steppes from South Siberia seems unlikely because archaeologists suppose a continuity of Mongolian-related peoples in SE Siberia since the neolithic. Further, a genetic studies on SW Siberians made a neolithic age of their R1a1 y-chromosomes and West Eurasian mtDNA in SW Siberia imaginable.

Of course, older migrations would be imaginable, but since we're talking about language families, I won't go further into the past than into the neolithic.

----------

Volodko et al. 2009: "Analysis of the mitochondrial DNA diversity in Yukaghirs in the evolutionary context"

Quote:
 
It was demonstrated that tundra Yukaghirs were characterized by rather low diversity (0.837), caused by nonrandom distribution of mtDNA haplotypes. Although the whole population contained 23 haplotypes, only one of these (C2a) was found with unusually high frequency (41.5%) [9]. It was suggested that the main reason of the evident gene drift, was a dramatic decrease of the Yukaghir number due to the epidemics, which occurred particularly often in the 19th century, and subsequent geographic isolation of Tundra Yukaghirs from lower Indigirka, Kolyma, and Alazea [6]. Minimum genetic diversity was found in Udegeis and Nivkhs (0.860 and 0.849, respectively), while maximum diversity was observed in Mansi, Tuvinians, and Yakuts (0.972, 0.972, and 0.964, respectively).


(no haplogroup distribution table)
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Maju
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Reading that it looks like it was another American genocide but in Eurasia. Those people were so much isolated that didn't even know what a horse was. Also their genetics is shockingly "Native American", whith high % of C and D mtDNA.

One of the links point to a possible Uralo-Yukaghir linguistic link. That would be curious because, if confirmed, it would talk of an ecologically specific linguistic grouping through most of Northern Eurasia, from Lappland to Eastern Siberia.
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