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Xianbei-related and Donghu-related studies
Topic Started: Dec 26 2010, 12:16:17 PM (519 Views)
black man
The Right Hand
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most recent update:


Zhang Ye et al. 2017: "The Y-chromosome haplogroup C3*-F3918, likely attributed to the Mongol Empire, can be traced to a 2500-year-old nomadic group"

The Mongol Empire had a significant role in shaping the landscape of modern populations. Many populations living in Eurasia may have been the product of population mixture between ancient Mongolians and natives following the expansion of Mongol Empire. Geneticists have found that most of these populations carried the Y-haplogroup C3* (C-M217). To trace the history of haplogroup (Hg) C3* and to further understand the origin and development of Mongolians, ancient human remains from the Jinggouzi, Chenwugou and Gangga archaeological sites, which belonged to the Donghu, Xianbei and Shiwei, respectively, were analysed. Our results show that nine of the eleven males of the Gangga site, two of the eight males of Chengwugou site and all of the twelve males of Jinggouzi site were found to have mutations at M130 (Hg C), M217 (Hg C3), L1373 (C2b, ISOGG2015), with the absence of mutations at M93 (Hg C3a), P39 (Hg C3b), M48 (Hg C3c), M407 (Hg C3d) and P62 (Hg C3f). These samples were attributed to the Y-chromosome Hg C3* (Hg C2b, ISOGG2015), and most of them were further typed as Hg C2b1a based on the mutation at F3918. Finally, we inferred that the Y-chromosome Hg C3*-F3918 can trace its origins to the Donghu ancient nomadic group.

north to south:
Gangga site: 9/11
Jinggouzi site: 12/12
Chenwugou site: 2/8

most ancient to most recent:
Jinggouzi site (2500 yo): 12/12
Chenwugou site (1700 yo): 2/8
Gangga site (1200 yo): 9/11

=> genealogically closer to Amerindian P39+ than to Mongolic and Tungusic M48+
=> northern (as in "close to the Amur valley") rather than southern

And judging from the http://www.anthropedia.science/topic/10021935/1/ trees of Wei Lanhai et al. 2017, the locations of the samples are closer to those of known Mongolic and Tungusic DYS448del/F1756+ samples than to the location of the Koryak sample "Koryak22071". So most of them might have be DYS448del and F1756+ samples like the former.

2nd update:

Zhang Ye et al. 2016: "Genetic diversity of two Neolithic populations provides evidence of farming expansions in North China"
The West Liao River Valley and the Yellow River Valley are recognized Neolithic farming centers in North China. The population dynamics between these two centers have significantly contributed to the present-day genetic patterns and the agricultural advances of North China. To understand the Neolithic farming expansions between the West Liao River Valley and the Yellow River Valley, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the Y chromosome of 48 individuals from two archeological sites, Jiangjialiang (>3000 BC) and Sanguan (~1500 BC). These two sites are situated between the two farming centers and experienced a subsistence shift from hunting to farming. We did not find a significant difference in the mtDNA, but their genetic variations in the Y chromosome were different. Individuals from the Jiangjialiang belonged to two Y haplogroups, N1 (not N1a or N1c) and N1c. The individuals from the Sanguan are Y haplogroup O3. Two stages of migration are supported. Populations from the West Liao River Valley spread south at about 3000 BC, and a second northward expansion from the Yellow River Valley occurred later (30001500 BC).

According to table 1 of Zhang Ye et al. 2016, 41 Jiangjialiang site samples feature 14 mtDNA hg D sample. Of these,
- 7 belong to D4
- 4 to D5
- 3 to D*

according to table S1.

I.e., even though mtDNA hg D seems to have been the most common mtDNA hg in that population, those within this hg were not necessarily homogenous. However, y hg distribution appears to indicate more or less homogenous patrilineal backgrounds. (All 17 samples ended up in the N-M36+ and N-N46-, M128- clusters).

1st update:

Wang Haijing et al., Genetic Data Suggests that the Jinggouzi People are Associated With the Donghu, an Ancient Nomadic Group of North China

=> despite of the very much southwestern location of the tomb(s?), all of the 12 relevant male samples turned out to belong to a y hg C paragroup which is very rare today. The matrilineages predominately belong to mtDNA hg D4. MtDNA hgs C and G2 were relatively common. M10, D(xD4, D5) and D5 were detected in one case each.

original post:

The skulls described in this article are from the ancient tombs in Wangong and Zhalainur in Chenbaerhu Banner and Nanyangjiayinzi in Balinzuo Banner, all in Inner Mongolia.Their dates correspond to the Eastern Han dynasty. These materials are mainly the remains of the nomadic people of ancient times.The physical characteristics of the three groups of the skulls excavated from the abovementioned three places present rather complicated features. Basically they all belong to the Asiatic Mongoloids and are related to the modern Northern and Eastern Asiatic and Arctic Mongoloids to varing degrees.The horizontal diameter of the skull from Wangong is longer. The basi-bregmatic height and upper facial height are all greater. The nose tends to be narrow. Face is wider but flat.This shows that the people are mainly related to the Arctic Mongoloids. Probably they also contain some features of the Northern and Eastern Asiatic Mongoloids.Due to physical differences, the group of skulls from Zhalainur can be classified into two types. Most of them are of medium basi-bregmatic height, narrower nose, tapeinocarny, and broad yet flat face. It seems that in physique they are of a combination of Northern Asiatic and Arctic Mongoloids. A few individuals with narrower bizygamatic breadth may be related to Eastern Asiatic Mongoloids. Another type is of typoical chamaecrany and tapeinocrany,combining with wider but flat face. This clearly shows the physical characteristics of the Northern Asiatic Mongoloids.Most of the skulls from Nanyangijiayingzi are of chamaecrany and tapeinocrany with flat face. They can be regarded as the Northern Asiatic Mongaloids. Those which are combination of hypsicrany with hypsiconchy and lepteny are probably related to the Eastern Asiatic or Arctic Mongoloids.As to their ethnical affinity, these three groups of skulls mentioned above are probably related to the Xianbei or Xiongnu tribes of the Eastern Han peirod.

The Upper Xiajiadian Culture is an aboriginal culture flourishing in western Liaoning Province in northeast China during the middle and late periods of the Bronze Age. Its limits of distribution are 45~ n. lat. in the north; 40~ n. lat. in the south, i.e. not beyond the Luanhe River and the Yanshan Mountains; the Qilaotu Mountains in the southwest; 117~ e. long. in the west; the Liuhe River in the east, i.e. not farther than 123~ e. long. Its age corresponds roughly to the times from the early period of the Western Zhou Dynasty to the middle period of the Warring States, lasting 7 to 8 centuries. All the living sites and graveyards of the culture are located on southern terraces along rivers in the region. Most of its graves are in an west-east direction with the heads of the dead pointing to the east, and most of the dead are accompanied by one or more dogs buried with them. The males of higher status are frequently found with a curved-bladed bronze dagger laid beside the waist, Some of the well-preserved skeletons, regardless of sex and age, are found with the face covered with a piece of sackcloth decorated with bronze studs and turquoise beads or covered with one or two large shells.Bronze metallurgy in this culture was well developed, which is especially marked in the casting of various forms of curved-bladed bronze daggers. Within the area of its distribution, according to the differences of curved-bladed bronze daggers, pottery and economic patterns, the culture can be divided into three types. They are the Dajing Type in the north, the Nanshangen Type in the middle and the Shiertaiyingzi Type in the south. The Dajing Type is characterized by Kind A of curved-bladed bronze daggers; the Shiertaiyingzi Type, by Kind B of daggers; and the Nanshangen Type, by Kinds A, B and C of daggers. Between the three cultural types there are intermediary zones that feature the mixture of elements of two different types. Regarding ethnic attribution, the spacial and temporal aspects of the culture, its customs of accompanying the dead with dogs, shaving the head and covering the face of the dead with sackcloth or shell masks and the physical features of its people all show that the creator of the culture must have been the Donghu Tribes, a famous ancient minority people in northeast China, often occurring in Chinese historical records.

In this paper the racial characteristics of the human skulls from Ganguya cemetery, Jiuquan county, Gansu province excavated in 1987, were studied using multivariate analysis. According to 14C dating the age of these cemetery falls between 840 to 1600 B.P.. Principal components analysis, factor analysis, and the Q-type hierarchical clustering method were all used in this study, The results produced by these three techniques are quite consistent. 1. The Ganguya group was more closely related to the Mongoloid than to either the Caucasian and Australoids. Therefore, there is no doubt that the Bronze Age inhabitants of Ganguya belonged to the Mongoloid. 2. The Bronze Age inhabitants of Ganguya possessed larger orbital height, nasal height, upper facial height and basibregmatic height, and combining these with some important cranio-facial traits such as maximum cranial length. These traits are more closely related to the East Asian type of Mongoloid than to the North Asian type. 3. R-type factor analysis and Q-type hierarchical clustering suggest that the Ganguya group may be closely related to the Ha-mi group(in Xinjiang). We need to study this problem further.

Zhu Hong 2003: Ancient human skull unearthed from the han-jin period cemetery at the yuchang site in da' an county, jilin province
In this article,an ancient human skull (male,about 30 years old) unearthed from the Han-Jin period cemetery at the Yuchang Site in Jilin Province was studied.The morphological features of Yuchang crania show that the racial type is closely related to the modern North Asiatic Mongoloids, but some physical characteristics of this skull are closer to those in the ancient Xianbei nationality population and the modern Mongolian or Tungus population.

Han Wei 2005: Analyses of the Racial and Systematic Types of Residents of Beiwei Period in Datong, ShanXi Province
This article is a research on crania from tombs of Beiwei period in Datong,ShanXi Prov- ince.The research indicates that residents of Beiwei period in Datong,which belong to the Asiatic Mongolias,are rather close to the modern eastern Asiatic Mongolias in physical fea- tures.In comparison with the group of ancient crania,residents in Beiwei period in Datong, more similar to Yinxu crania Ⅱ,Maoqingqou crania and Yangshao crania,should belong to the ancient-ZhongYuan type,but different from other known Xianbei races in Han-Jin period.The material of Datong-Beiwei group is significant for research on the social culture,the economic condition and the racial component of residents of Beiwei period in China.

ZHU Hong and ZHOU Hui 2006: Research on the Ancient Human Skulls Unearthed from the Cemeteries of Han Dynasty and the Following Periods in the Frontier Region of China
In this article, some of the ancient human skulk unearthed from the cemeteries of Han Dynasty and the following periods in Xinjiang, liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang, Qinghai and Inner Mongolia were studied. Those skulls were from the population of Cheshi(车师), Xianbei(鲜卑), Koguryo, Bohai, Tibetan and Qidan, etc. These ancient skulls have been studied from point of view of physical anthropology and molecular archaeology and a plenty of achievements have been gotten in this area.

Wu Songyan 2008: Comparing study on the Xianbei and Hans Tombs Dated to Northern Wei Period in Shengle and Pingcheng Area
Many burials dated to Northern Wei were found in the two places,Shengle and Pingcheng,where the Capitals were first built by the Norhern Wei Xianbeis.We may know the nation of the owner by marking the inscription on the memorial tablet within a tomb or other relics with inscription.Based on studying those tombs mentioned above,we may tell the main features of the Xianbeis and Hans,the differences between the two nations,and judge those tombs without nation,furthermore research the history of the connecting between the Beiweis and Hans,accrding to the common and differences between the two nations.

ZHU Hong,ZHANG Quan-chao and CHANG E 2009: Exploring the Remains of Donghu:New Evidence from Biological Archeology
The biological archeology study of the remains of ancient residents unearthed from the Western Area of the Jinggouzi Cemetery in Linxi County of Inner Mongolia,which includes physical anthropology,molecular biology and stable isotope analysis,reveals that this group of residents living in the Eastern Zhou period had many ethnic traits of Siberian Mongoloids,such as low,flat,broad face.This racial feature is very similar to that of Xianbei people,Qidan people and Mongolians.Phylogenetic analysis and multidimensional scaling analysis of mitochondrial DNA show that these ancient residents have close kinship with modern northern Asians and ancient Tuoba Xianbei people in terms of maternal inheritance.Recipe Analysis shows that they maintained a relatively high proportion of animal food intake in their daily diet,indicating that farming industry and hunting occupied an important position in the economic life.

ZHAO Xin et al. 2010: Research on the Flow of the Xianbei from the Perspective of DNA in Population Genetics
To discuss the flow of the Xianbei ethnic issues,the genetic distances of Dongdajing Xianbei people in Eastern Han Dynasty and Qilangshan Xianbei people in the Wei and Jin periods are compared with that of other ancient and modern populations,combined with phylogenetic analysis and multi-dimensional analysis.The results show that the Xianbei and modern Xibe have the nearest genetic relationship.With the hint of movement and Hannization of Xianbei,the main crowd merged into the Han nationality,but one branch which had not migrated to south China may develop into the modern Xibe nationality.
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