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Native American mtDNA in the Caribbean; abstracts
Topic Started: Feb 14 2005, 08:58:34 PM (360 Views)
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"Reconstructing the population history of Puerto Rico by means of mtDNA phylogeographic analysis" abstract
The haplogroup identities of 800 mtDNAs randomly and systematically selected to be representative of the population of Puerto Rico were determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), revealing maternal ancestries in this highly mixed population of 61.3% Amerindian, 27.2% sub-Saharan African, and 11.5% West Eurasian. West Eurasian frequencies were low in all 28 municipalities sampled, and displayed no geographic patterns. Thus, a statistically significant negative correlation was observed between the Amerindian and African frequencies of the municipalities. In addition, a statistically highly significant geographic pattern was observed for Amerindian and African mtDNAs. In a scenario in which Amerindian mtDNAs prevailed on either side of longitude 66°16 West, Amerindian mtDNAs were more frequent west of longitude 66°16 West than east of it, and the opposite was true for African mtDNAs. Haplogroup A had the highest frequency among Amerindian samples (52.4%), suggesting its predominance among the native Taínos. Principal component analysis showed that the sub-Saharan African fraction had a strong affinity to West Africans. In addition, the magnitudes of the Senegambian and Gulf of Guinea components in Puerto Rico were between those of Cape Verde and São Tomé. Furthermore, the West Eurasian component did not conform to European haplogroup frequencies. HVR-I sequences of haplogroup U samples revealed a strong North African influence among West Eurasian mtDNAs and a new sub-Saharan African clade.
Am J Phys Anthropol, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Received: 4 November 2003; Accepted: 29 March 2004


MtDNA diversity in six West Indian Islands throughout the Anglophone Caribbean.

J. Benn Torres et al.

The Caribbean is an example of a convergence of people and cultures from several continents. Few researchers have investigated how this phenomenon affected immigrants and their subsequent communities, even fewer have attempted to examine this convergence using anthropological genetics. In this analysis, mtDNA hypervariable region I (HVI) and haplogroup diagnostic RFLPs are examined in 318 individuals from six Afro-Caribbean communities in Dominica, St. Lucia, St. Kitts, St. Vincent, Grenada, and Trinidad. Genetic diversity and maternal genetic contributions to contemporary Caribbean populations are examined and comparisons are made between these data and those published from other African and African-derived populations.

All samples were collected from buccal swabs, extracted, and amplified using standard methods. The HVI was sequenced and 14 RFLPs were typed to determine the haplogroup. The Caribbean sequence summary statistics (pi, theta, gene diversity, average number of nucleotide differences, and Tajima’s D) are all similar to each other and similar to published African data. MtDNA haplogroup L is detected in 93% of the total sample, while the remaining 7% consists of haplogroups A, C, F, J, N1c, U6, and U7. The presence of non-L types is indicative of non- Sub-Saharan African female gene flow into these communities and for the most part, is likely due to recent immigration. Different ethnic groups make up the African Diaspora, such as African-Americans, West Indians/Afro-Caribbeans, and Afro-Latinos, this study examines the origins of a little studied group within this Diaspora.
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black man
The Right Hand
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"C1b2" was the most common mtDNA hg in pre-contact Puerto Rico according to a poster they recently presented. That said, the authors indicated this particular hg could be present in South American samples as well.

Nieves-Colon et al. 2017: "7,000 years of change"
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