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O-002611 phylogeography
Topic Started: May 27 2018, 04:28:04 PM (147 Views)
ren
Advanced Member
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Late Neolithic expansion of ancient Chinese revealed by
Y chromosome haplogroup O3a1c

002611
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1759-6831.2012.00244.x
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Ebizur
Advanced Member
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According to YFull YTree v6.02, O-JST002611's date of formation (i.e. its TMRCA with its nearest outgroup, O-CTS727) is estimated to be 16,900 [95% CI 15,100 <-> 18,700] ybp, and its TMRCA is estimated to be 13,800 [95% CI 12,300 <-> 15,300] ybp. However, most extant members of haplogroup O-JST002611 belong to either O-F11 or O-F238, two coordinate subclades that have very similar TMRCA estimates: 8,900 [95% CI 8,200 <-> 9,600] ybp for O-F11 and 8,800 [95% CI 7,400 <-> 10,200] for O-F238.

This haplogroup is present in approximately 17% of Han Chinese, approximately 10% of Koreans, and approximately 4% of Japanese according to data currently available to me (out of 340 sampled Japanese, 909 sampled Koreans, and several thousand sampled Chinese). Yao et al. 2017 ("Improved phylogenetic resolution for Y-chromosome Haplogroup O2a1c-002611") claim that O2a1c-002611 has been found in approximately 14% of Vietnamese and about 5% of Manchu and Mongol.

O-JST002611 is one of the most numerically prevalent among the Y-DNA haplogroups that exhibit a Chinese > Korean > Japanese pattern of distribution. It is also found among Miao, Tujia, Mongolic peoples (Mongol in Chifeng, Inner Mongolia and Tu in Huzhu Tu Autonomous County, Qinghai), Manchus, Qiangic peoples, and Tibetans in the PRC. Its distribution appears to be a bit patchy in Southeast Asia, but it has been found with notable frequency in some samples from Vietnam (e.g. 4/46 = 8.7% O-F11 Kinh in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam [KHV]), Laos, Thailand, and the Philippines. I suspect that many members of this clade among ethnic minorities in the PRC and among people in Southeast Asia and Japan might be patrilineal descendants of Han who have "gone native." As is the case with several other typically Han Chinese haplogroups, the frequency of O-JST002611 among Koreans (both in the PRC and in South Korea) is so high that one might hesitate to ascribe its presence among them to gene flow from Han Chinese, but I think that that is probably the correct explanation (barring some heretofore undescribed scenario whereby Han Chinese and Koreans are mutually most closely related ethnic groups by origin).
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ren
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It's not Sino-Tibetan.
1. Not found extensively in ST populations.
2. The center of gravity seems to be eastern North China Plain, where as ST is western Wei Valley Yangshao Culture.

It should be associated with the Yueshi/Dongyi, the rivals of the Shang and Zhou. This culture migrated both to the Korean Peninsula and to southern China due to Zhou pressure and conquest.
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Ebizur
Advanced Member
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The TMRCA of O-M1706, at least one subclade of which is prevalent among Tibeto-Burman-speaking peoples, is estimated by YFull to be 6,800 ybp. That is even younger than the estimated TMRCA of O-F11 or O-F238.

This situation is somewhat analogous to that of R1a and R1b vis-a-vis the spread of Indo-European languages. It is possible that O-F11 and/or O-F238 might also have been prevalent among speakers of pre-Proto-Sino-Tibetan, but members of O-M1706 happened to become overwhelmingly dominant among the regional subset that produced Tibeto-Burmans. Note that the MRCA of O2a1c-JST002611 and O2a2b1a1a-M1706 in O2a-M324 is estimated to have lived approximately 24,100 [95% CI 22,300 <-> 25,900] ybp, whereas the MRCA of R1a1a-M17 and R1b1a1a2-M269 in R1-M173 is estimated to have lived approximately 22,800 [95% CI 20,500 <-> 25,100] ybp, so it is almost equally plausible that both O2a1c-JST002611 and O2a2b1a1a-M1706 might have spread with Sino-Tibetan languages as it is plausible that both R1a1a-M17 and R1b1a1a2-M269 might have spread with Indo-European languages from their origin.

It is parsimonious to avoid positing hypothetical extinct and undocumented ethnic groups, but it also seems likely that in an area so extensive and amenable to human habitation as China proper there should have been some other ethnic group besides the Sinitics prior to, during, and for some time after the spread of food-producing culture in the region. I am unsure what evidence might be used to test a hypothesis that O-F11 and O-F238 have originated and expanded among some extinct and undocumented ethnolinguistic group versus a hypothesis that O-F11 and O-F238 have originated and expanded among speakers of pre-Proto-Sino-Tibetan and been lost from the Tibeto-Burman branch via a founder effect that benefited certain members of O-M1706.
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black man
The Right Hand
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Interestingly, the apparent distribution pattern of O-KL1+ according to the current yfull tree indicates a potential parallel to the distribution of what I preliminarily called "central inland Han" physiological type...

KL1+, CTC727+: mostly in Hunan
KL1+, IMS-JST02611+, F18+, F238+: featuring samples in Anhui, Hunan and Fujian
KL1+, IMS-JST02611+, F18+, F11+, CTS12877+: featuring a sample in Hunan
KL1+, IMS-JST02611+, F18+, F11+, F270+: Jiangsu
KL1+, IMS-JST02611+, F18+, F11+, F971+: one branch in Jiangxi and another in Guangdong
KL1+, IMS-JST02611+, F18+, F11+, Y29837+: featuring samples in Zhejiang and Fujian
KL1+, IMS-JST02611+, F18+, F11+, F632+: mostly in Hunan

Besides that, they collected such samples in Beijing. I.e., these patrilineages might have spread from the lower Huanghe valley to inland Jiangnan and from the latter to, e.g., Guangdong. So ancient carriers might have been peasants rather than fishermen. And one might wonder to what extent they could have influenced ethno-genetic processes among, e.g., HM-speakers.

Btw, note that its spread in Hunan doesn't seem to correlate with y hg C (see, e.g., the samples of Yuan Dejian et al. 2017, Zhong Hua et al. 2011 and Wen Bo et al. 2004). Judging from the data of, e.g., Zhong Hua et al. 2011, I'd suppose, y hg C might turn out to be more common in populations more or less descended from fishermen rather than peasants. Note though, there would have to be some more detailed information about the historical occupational backgrounds of coastal Han, Kinh etc in future studies. Unfortunately, geneticists usually don't seem to consider any approaches like that.




addendum:

what if Xiang dialect-speakers in NE Hunan are the population most similar to the hypothetical ancestral one?
Edited by black man, Jun 1 2018, 12:06:40 PM.
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Ebizur
Advanced Member
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There is little evidence available to support a hypothesis of distinct origins of O2-M122 among Chinese and Koreans. Almost everything I have seen so far would be consistent with a hypothesis that members of O2-M122 among the Chinese and among the Koreans fundamentally reflect a single ancestral population, some descendants of which now speak Chinese, and some descendants of which now speak Korean. In regard to O-JST002611, even the proportions of O-F238/F449, O-F11, and O-JST002611(xF11, F238/F449) are almost perfectly matched between the two ethnic groups with a ratio of 1:7:1. There does not appear to be any significant difference in regard to O-KL2(xJST002611), O-F444 (i.e. O-M134(xM117)), or O-M117, either.

O2a2b2-AM01822/F3223 (i.e. O2a2b-P164(xO2a2b1-M134)), one subclade of which predominates among Austronesian members of O2-M122, and the basal O2b-F742 (i.e. O2-M122(xO2a-M324)) both appear to be somewhat more common among Han Chinese than among Koreans, but the frequencies of these clades are low even among Han Chinese. Yan et al. 2011 have 12/361 = 3.3% O2a2b-P164(xO2a2b1-M134) and 6/361 = 1.7% O2-M122(xO2a-M324) in their pooled sample of Han Chinese, with each of these two haplogroups peaking in "East China" ("samples whose origins are from the provinces of Jiangsu, Anhui, Zhejiang, and Shanghai"). Another clade that exhibits the same sort of regional peak (at least within the PRC) in "East China" is O1a1a-P203, and that clade also is more frequent among Han Chinese overall than among Koreans; O1a1a-P203 is also very common further south in Fujian and Taiwan (especially among the Austronesian-speaking aborigines of that island), in the Philippines, and in Indonesia.

The greatest difference between Han Chinese and Koreans in regard to the composition of the segment of their Y-DNA pools that belongs to O2-M122 is probably that which may be observed in O2a2-P201(xO2a2b-P164), i.e. O2a2a-M188:

14/361 = 3.88% O-P201(xP164) [14/204 = 6.86% of O2-M122 total] Han Chinese (Yan et al. 2011)
45/706 = 6.37% O-P201(xP164) [45/297 = 15.15% of O2-M122 total] Koreans (Kwon et al. 2015)

It appears that approximately 50% (7/14) of the O2a2a-M188+ segment of the Y-DNA pool of Han Chinese should belong to O2a2a1a2-M7, whereas only about 6.7% (3/45) of this segment of the Y-DNA pool of Koreans should belong to O2a2a1a2-M7. Furthermore, the distribution of O2a2a-M188(xO2a2a1a2-M7) among Han Chinese seems to exhibit a strongly negative correlation with latitude. O2a2a-M188 is not common in Japan by any means; there are zero members of this clade in the JPT sample of the 1000 Genomes Project and one member of this clade in the "Japanese" (collected in the USA) sample of the HGDP, so perhaps 1% to 2% of Japanese might belong to O-M188. In summary, this clade appears to exhibit a Korean > South Chinese > North Chinese & Japanese pattern of density of distribution, which is very unusual and counterintuitive. I would bet on some sort of founder effect being responsible for the elevated frequency of O2a2a-M188(xO2a2a1a2-M7) Y-DNA in Korea. I have little confidence in Korean bloggers, but some of them seem to be convinced that the royal family of Goryeo/Gori (i.e. historical "Korea" proper as opposed to "Joseon," "Han," "Jin," "Silla," "Baekje," etc.) belonged to this clade.
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